Yes, 3D Secure is what we call a “strong authentication”, meaning an authentication that meets strong security criteria, as recommended by the second European directive on payment services for the domestic market (PSD2). This principle became mandatory for all remote electronic payments in 2018 and is applied to all payment card transactions since 2021. It ensures that a fraudster who has been able to steal a security feature (e.g. your card number) will be prevented from making transactions with your cards. For example: if your cards or your card data were to fall into the wrong hands, it would be impossible to make a transaction using the security data from your payment cards without having your LuxTrust security data or your biometric data. If a purchase is made without a strong 3D Secure authentication, you cannot be held liable for fraud, but only the party which requested or authorised such a purchase without 3D Secure.